The Safety of Using Various Antibacterial Drugs in Pregnant Women
There is no denying that far from all antibacterial drugs are safe for use during pregnancy. In the United States, a study compared the effects of various antibiotics on fetal development.
The results of the study confirmed the safety of penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin). From a safety perspective, penicillin was the optimal drug in this group.
Among the aminoglycosides, kanamycin and streptomycin have shown the greatest toxicity when used in early pregnancy.
Most cephalosporins had a toxic effect on the fetus, but according to the study, the most dangerous were cephalexin and ceftriaxone.
Clindamycin is used to treat chorioamnionitis. A study of the effect of this medication on fetal development in 647 pregnant women has shown no increase in the incidence of birth defects in the fetus.
The use of fluoroquinolones in humans was fairly safe, but data from animals indicated their embryotoxicity. The question regarding the use of fluoroquinolones in pregnant women is still open, but experts recommend not using this group of drugs and prefer alternative antibiotics.
There is no information confirming the negative effect of linezolid on fetal development, although some studies indicate embryotoxicity of linezolid when prescribed to many laboratory mammals.
Although the data on the use of azithromycin are not so numerous, they are rather optimistic. Thus, the appointment of azithromycin to 26 pregnant patients in the treatment of cervicitis has proven its safety.
Tested in rabbits, rifampicin gave good results, but embryotoxicity appeared in rats and mice.
The use of sulfa drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy leads to multiple malformations and developmental abnormalities, therefore, their appointment should be abandoned.
The use of tetracyclines leads to discoloration of dental enamel, hepatotoxicity and fetal malformations.
The study confirmed the safety of pregnant women with vancomycin.